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In the liver, cortisol results in increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression and thus increased triacylglycerol (TAG) formation. However, in adipose tissue, cortisol results in decreased PEPCK expression.

What is the MOST likely explanation for why cortisol has opposite effects in different tissues?


There are different kinds of cortisol molecules that each bind differently.


Each tissue has a different gradient of cortisol concentrations, resulting in varying effects.


Each tissue has different transporters that bring cortisol into the cytosol with differing specificities.


Each tissue has receptors/transcription factors with different isoforms that either enhance or inhibit PEPCK transcription when cortisol binds.

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