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Chloroplasts utilize water and light to produce molecular oxygen. They utilize carbon dioxide to produce sugars.

The process by which chloroplasts produce sugars is called the
Select Option Krebs cycleCalvin cycleNitrogen cycle
. This process is
Select Option light-dependentlight-independent
and has three reaction steps: fixation, reduction and regeneration. The first step utilizes inorganic carbon dioxide and involves the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate to produce 3-phosphoglyceric acid. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme,
Select Option ribulose bisphosphate carboxylaseglyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenasephosphoglycerate kinase
. In the second step,
Select Option GTP and ATPcarbon dioxide and oxygenATP and NADPH
, the energy carriers produced during light-dependent photosynthesis, are used to reduce 3-phosphoglyceric acid to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. This step involves two reactions:
Firstly, 3-phosphoglyceric acid is
Select Option acetylatedmethylatedphosphorylated
by the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase and ATP, producing ADP and 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Secondly, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is reduced by the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH yielding NADP+ and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Some of these glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates are utilized to produce
Select Option oxygensugarsATPs
. The third step involves a series of reactions to regenerate
Select Option carbon dioxideribulose-1,5-bisphosphate1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
.
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