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Cancer results from mutations that accrue in the genome of normal cells over time. These types of mutations include small mutations such as point mutations, and small insertions and deletions. Larger structural changes in chromosomes include large insertions, deletions, inversions, and translocations.

A traditional way to look at structural variation and ploidy is through karyotyping. One of the most common types used is spectral karyotyping (e.g. SKY) where chromosomal-specific fluorescent probes are used with fluorescence microscopy.

Karyotype of a human breast cancer cell line. Karp, Gerald. "Cancer." Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments Eighth Edition Binder Ready Version. Printed in the United States: John Wiley, 2015. pg 630. Print.

The type of structural modification highlighted by the arrow for chromosome 5 in the figure is known as a(n)
Select Option gene duplicationdeletiontranslocationinversion
Select Option Chromosome 2Chromosome 4Chromosome 17Chromosome 22
represents normal ploidy in this human breast cancer cell line karyotype analysis.
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