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Mouse models are an important tool to help elucidate the molecular underpinnings of human cancer development and treatment strategies. Transgenic mice allow for the gain-of-function overexpression of genes that could contribute to cancer, namely oncogenes. Knockout mice are useful in loss-of-function studies of genes, such as tumor suppressor genes that restrict cancer initiation and progression.

The graph below represents the kinetics associated with overexpression of oncogenes in the mammary glands of transgenic female mice.

Lodish, Harvey F. "Cancer." Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2016. Pg 1146. Print.

Which of the following statements is NOT true?


The mutant ras oncogene is more tumorigenic than the MYC oncogene.


Ras and Myc proteins most likely affect the same signaling pathway.


Cancer cells isolated from tumors of these mice most likely do not have any additional mutations.


The bi-transgenic model shows a synergistic effect on tumor development.

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