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Pseudogenes are genes that have been mutated in a manner as to render them nonfunctional; i.e. the original protein coded by the gene is no longer expressed. However, expression of pseudogenes can lead to the creation of competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA).

What is the involvement of non-coding pseudogene expression with the regulation of expression of coding genes?

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Translation of pseudogenes can produce proteins that destroy proteins of the homologous gene product.


Pseudogene transcription into RNA can result in ceRNA decoys for the binding of miRNA normally destined for its related coding mRNA.


Pseudogenes are generally not transcribed or translated and therefore have no effect on the expression of other genes.


Pseudogene DNA can bind up mRNA from related genes, thus rendering these genes nonfunctional.


Pseudogene binding of miRNA will lead to increased expression of the related coding gene.

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