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ATP efficiency is determined by the number of c subunits. The image below shows c subunits below as light and dark blue pillars flanked by the gray membrane; each pillar represents a c subunit. The fewer c subunits, the fewer protons (shown in green) that are needed to turn ATP synthase; the relationship is one proton per c subunit.

For example, if there are 12 c subunits, it requires 12 protons for one complete turn of ATP synthase. If there are 10 c subunits, 10 protons are required per turn. Every complete turn of ATP synthase produces three ATP.

Goodsell, David. ATP Synthase. Digital image. Protein Database. Doi:10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2005_12, Dec. 2005. Web. 4 Oct. 2016.

The oxidation of three $NADH$ and one ${FADH}_2$ (the products of one complete round of the Krebs cycle) pumps 36 protons into the intermembrane space.

If mitochondrial ATP synthase has 12 c subunits, how many ATP will this produce?









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