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In which of the following situations would primary succession occur? Select ALL that apply.


A lake is drained, exposing dry land at the bottom. Because all species inhabiting the lake were adapted for an aquatic environment, none survive.


A tsunami scours a coastal area down to the bedrock.


A grass fire burns across a savanna; small animals hide in burrows, and the soil insulates and protects some plants' root systems.


A large tree falls in a forest, knocking over several others and creating a clearing in which more sunlight reaches the ground.

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