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Goslings imprint on their mother within a few hours of hatching. This is
an innate behavior, because it occurs immediately after hatching and remains unchanged afterward.
a learned behavior, because recognizing “Mom” requires an experience — they do not instinctively know what their specific mother looks like, so they have to see her before responding.
an innate behavior, because a mistake in identifying their mother could be costly.
a learned behavior, because they make multiple attempts, and can learn to recognize other individuals as their mother later if their actual mother is not present when they hatch.