A researcher is studying a genus of tree frogs. She uses molecular data to produce a phylogeny of the genus with which she can look at the evolution of certain traits in the frogs, such as toe pad size. According to her results, large toe pads are the ancestral trait and are found in three species, and small toe pads are the derived trait and found in six species in the genus. She wants to publish her results but cannot remember the proper phylogenetic term for describing the large toe pads.
Which of the following terms should she use to describe the evolutionary history of the large toe pads?