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A team of researchers is interested in the population ecology of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in a large forest fragment on the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica.

Which of the following variables should the researchers study in order to understand the population ecology of these monkeys? Select ALL that apply.


The number of individuals in the forest fragment.


The total area of the forest fragment.


The age of sexual maturity.


The number of individuals that enter and leave the forest fragment each year.


The birth and death rates.

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