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Vervet monkeys have distinct warning calls for different types of predators. Young monkeys learn how these calls sound by listening to adults and copying them.

This is an example of
Select Option associativesocialspatial
learning. When a vervet hears a particular predator call, it responds appropriately — for example, vervets that hear the “snake” predator warning look at the ground, while vervets who hear the “bird” predator call will look up. This connection between the sound and the specific behavior must be learned and demonstrates
Select Option associativespatial
learning, likely influenced by
Select Option spatialsocial
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