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Many different types of genetic changes can contribute to the divergence between populations and eventually to speciation (the development of new species). These genetic changes may occur at the DNA sequence level, or they may involve chromosomal segments, or even entire chromosomes.

When the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes (chromosomes where the centromere is at or near one end) fuse together, this phenomenon is referred to as a


reciprocal transition.


Richardson transformation.


relative translation.


Robertsonian translocation.

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