Genes encode proteins or ribosome molecules. When a gene encodes a protein, the molecule produced by transcription is a form of messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated into protein on the ribosomes.
Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA such as microRNA (miRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), or
, the molecules which are used to transport amino acids to the ribosomes.
RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to protein enzymes, can also be produced. These molecules are known as