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The collective genomes of the microbes (composed of bacteria, bacteriophage, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) that live inside and on the human body are known as the microbiome. Our bodies have about 10 times as many microbial cells as human cells. In 2007, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Human Microbiome Project to study the human body as a "supraorganism," consisting of both human and non-human cells.

Flowchart of microbiome analysis. This process requires a series of steps in order to determine genetic relatedness among species. Axtian. "Https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microbiome_analysis_flowchart.png." N.p., 1 Mar. 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2016. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microbiome_analysis_flowchart.png.

In order to analyze the microbiome of a specific location of the body, DNA must be extracted, after which a specific gene is sequenced via targeted or random amplicon sequencing, such as the
Select Option 16S rRNA16S mRNA
sequence. After the genome has been sequenced, it can be analyzed to infer
Select Option phylogenydevelopment
of the species present.
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