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Recombination is usually presented of in terms of crossovers that occur at meiosis. While this is frequent and essential to the life cycle of many eukaryotes, crossovers can occur in many other contexts as well.

Bacteria may take up DNA from their environment either directly in a process known as transformation, transferred into the bacterial cell in a process known as transduction, or transferred from another bacterial cell through a process called conjugation.

Once this new DNA has been introduced into the cell, it may integrate into the bacterial genome through recombination. As the introduced DNA is linear and much bacterial chromosome is circular different numbers of crossovers could occur.

Which of the following numbers of crossovers would lead to a viable bacterial cell that has integrated a portion of the introduced DNA?

Select ALL that apply.

A

Zero.

B

One.

C

Two.

D

Three.

E

Four.

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