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In preparation for an upcoming election, a research firm conducts a poll to determine the voting public’s opinion toward national issues. One of the most contentious measures is the possible opening of a new West Coast seaport.

The arguments in favor of the seaport include the creation of jobs, the capability of building more shipping routes between the US and Asian countries, and a reliable port for oil and gas imports. The arguments against the seaport include environmental damage, a lack of available infrastructure to build the port, and tax increases to pay for planning, environmental studies, and construction.

Through their voter phone survey, the firm concludes that the bill to build the seaport will pass, citing an approval rating of 68%. However, after the election votes are tallied, the port failed to gain voter support, with 57% voting against the measure.

Afterwards, opposition leaders accused the research firm of fraud by padding their numbers in a failed attempt to drum up support for the seaport.

Of the following, which is/are likely to support the opposition’s accusation?

I. The firm didn't account for problems with data collection methods.
II. The survey focused mainly on positive impacts of the port.
III. The surveyed population was selected from the West Coast cities.


I only


II only


III only


Both I and II


Both II and III

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