Limited access

Upgrade to access all content for this subject

In 1961, social psychologist Stanley Milgram famously conducted a study in which people labeled "teachers" were instructed to administer electric shocks to people in another room, labeled "students," when they answered questions incorrectly. The "teachers" were instructed to administer higher and higher levels of electrical shock, and heard what they believed were cries of pain from the room containing the "students."

In reality, there were no shocks. Milgram claimed that 65% of all "teachers" were finally convinced to administer a final, very painful "shock" to the "students" despite their discomfort with doing so. Milgram linked his results with the concept of "blind obedience" to authority, specifically explaining the behavior of Nazi war criminals during the Holocaust. According to Milgram, many individuals who would normally have been reluctant to cause harm to other people did so anyway, responding to the authority and commands of those above them in the Nazi regime.

Recently, Milgram's study has been reassessed. Which of the following, if true, would NOT call into question the results of the study?


Milgram did not take into account whether there were ethnic differences between the "teachers" and "students", thereby failing to reproduce the situation in the Holocaust.


The experimenter instructing the "teachers" used a wide variety of lies and heavy pressure to encourage them to administer the electrical shocks.


There were over 24 variations of the study, and the 65% figure reported by Milgram was the result of the first variation.


Milgram dismissed the claims of many "teacher" subjects who listed aspects of the study that seemed suspicious to them and made them doubt the electrical shocks were real.


The experiment that resulted in the 65% figure involved 40 people.

Select an assignment template