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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type IV autoimmune disease. Methotrexate is a commonly-prescribed immunosuppressant that is used to treat RA by impairing the proliferation of effector T cells. However, many patients are resistant to methotrexate and therefore must be placed on alternative therapies.

Which of the following could also be used to treat methotrexate-resistant RA?

A

Mepolizumab — a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes interleukin (IL)-5.

B

Nivolumab — a monoclonal antibody that blocks the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1.

C

Plasmapheresis — a process that removes antibodies from the blood.

D

Tacrolimus — a molecular inhibitor of NFAT activation.

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