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The term vaccine was invented from the Latin term vacca, meaning cow. This was done in honor of Edward Jenner, who inoculated people with less virulent cowpox virus to cure the virulent pathogen, smallpox. Since Jenner’s time, many vaccines have been developed. However, despite the successes of vaccine programs, many diseases caused by viruses, fungi, parasites, and bacteria lack effective vaccines.

Which of the following pathogens does NOT have an effective vaccine?

Select ALL that apply.

A

Bordetella pertussis (causes whooping cough).

B

Poliovirus (causes poliomyelitis).

C

HIV (causes AIDS).

D

Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus or “lockjaw”).

E

Rubeola virus (causes measles).

F

Plasmodium species (causes malaria).

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