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Deficiency in IgA production is one of the most common immune deficiencies. People with an IgA deficiency do not suffer from an increased risk of mucosal infections.

Which of the following may be one reason that these individuals can remain healthy?


Intraepithelial lymphocytes take on a CD4+ phenotype.


Bacteria require IgA to establish colonization of the gut.


The epithelium has more tight junctions.


IgM can overcome the deficiency in IgA.

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