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Positive and negative selection of thymocytes helps remove self-reactive T cells from developing, a term called central tolerance, which is mediated by expression of AIRE in the thymus. However, self-reactive thymocytes still escape to the periphery.

From below, choose all of the mechanisms that the body has developed to prevent autoimmunity.

Select ALL that apply.

A

Induced T regulatory cells.

B

Foxp3$^+$ regulatory T cells.

C

Antigen sequestration (immune privileged sites).

D

Anergy.

E

PD-1/PD-L1 (checkpoint molecules).

F

Lack of costimulation.

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