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Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have sudden (paroxysmal) bouts of blood in their urine (hemoglobinuria) at night (nocturnal). This is due to the formation of the complement system membrane attack complex (MAC) on the surface of red blood cells.

Which of the following complement regulatory proteins is likely missing from these patients’ red blood cells?

A

CD59.

B

Properdin (factor P) .

C

Factor I .

D

CR1 .

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