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"The others, waiting in the grass, saw Jack and Ralph unharmed and broke cover into the sunlight. They forgot the beast in the excitement of exploration. They swarmed across the bridge and soon were climbing and shouting. Ralph stood now, one hand against an enormous red block, a block large as a mill wheel that had been split off and hung, tottering. Somberly he watched the mountain. He clenched his fist and beat hammer-wise on the red wall at his right. His lips were tightly compressed and his eyes yearned beneath the fringe of hair.


He sucked his bruised fist.

'Jack! Come on.'

But Jack was not there. A knot of boys, making a great noise that he had not noticed, were heaving and pushing at a rock. As he turned, the base cracked and the whole mass toppled into the sea so that a thunderous plume of spray leapt half-way up the cliff.

'Stop it! Stop it!'

His voice struck a silence among them.


A strange thing happened in his head. Something flittered there in front of his mind like a bat's wing, obscuring his idea.


At once the ideas were back, and the anger.

'We want smoke. And you go wasting your time. You roll rocks.'"

What is the effect of the repetition of the word "smoke" in the passage above?


It shows Ralph is struggling to maintain his focus on what he knows is most important - rescue.


It contrasts the boys' carefree exploration of castle rock with Ralph's intense need to relight the fire and reconnect with civilization.


It is Ralph's attempt to call the group's attention to the smoke on the horizon and the importance it could have for them.


A & B


A, B & C

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