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The movement of ions is driven by two forces across the membrane. One is the chemical force. The other is the electrical force. The combination of these two is called the electrochemical gradient or the diffusion gradient of an ion. Different ions can move differently under the effect of the electrochemical gradient.

Carefully analyze the following statements, and select the correct one.

A

Ions cannot flow against a chemical concentration gradient. They always flow down a chemical concentration gradient.

B

The chemical force is the ion’s tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.

C

The electrical and chemical forces always contribute to the electrochemical gradient in the same direction.

D

Active transport can move ions against their electrochemical gradient.

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