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In the normal brain, neurons fire in a non-synchronous manner. In epileptic seizures, groups of neurons fire in an excessive and synchronized way. One of the possible causes of epileptic seizures is the abnormality in ion channels underlying certain phase of the action potential.

Which of the following is a CORRECT elaboration of this cause?


Abnormal low $K^+$ conductance during the falling phase diminishes the following refractory period.


Abnormal high $Na^+$ conductance during the rising phase enhances the amplitude of action potential.


Abnormally​ prolonged sodium channel inactivation lengthens the refractory period.


Abnormally fast sodium channel inactivation during the rising phase diminishes the following refractory period.

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