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In the Aplysia related experiments, researchers apply electric shocks to the tail of the animal to induce increased gill-withdrawal reflex behavior when the siphon is touched again.

This phenomenon is called sensitization, a simple form of learning that intensifies the response to subsequent stimuli.

Which of the following is NOT involved in the molecular steps leading to sensitization?


G-protein-coupled receptor.


Adenylyl cyclase and cAMP.


Protein kinase A.



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