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Besides the sea snail (Aplysia) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), the roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans) is also a widely used invertebrate model for learning and memory research. Usually called C. elegans, this nematode is about 1 mm long and has 302 neurons in its relatively simple nervous system.

Select ALL that are correct about learning in C. elegans.


C. elegans can learn to avoid $NaCl$ even though they are naturally attracted to it.


C. elegans can learn to avoid smells released by their bacterial food source.


C. elegans has temperature preference, which can be modified if that temperature is associated with a starving environment.


There are genes and neural circuits behind all these associative learning examples.

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