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Neural crest cells (NCCs) are specified during neurulation at the border of the neural plate and non-neural ectoderm. Upon neural tube closure, NCCs residing in the roof plate undergo epithelial-to-mesenchemal transition (EMT).

During EMT, NCCs delaminate from the roof plate and migrate throughout the developing embryo giving rise to various cell types and tissues.

Which of the following diseases are related to abnormal neural crest development?

Select ALL that apply.


Holoprosencephaly is a developmental brain disorder where prosencephalon fails to split into two hemispheres.


Hirschsprung's disease is gut motility disorder caused by absence of neural ganglion cells in parts or entire gastrointestinal tract.


Piebaldism is a skin pigmentation disorder caused by lack of melanocytes.


Spinocerebellar ataxia is a genetic disorder characterized by slowly progressive neuronal loss in the cerebellum and/or related brain regions and consequent gait incoordination.

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