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One of the properties of action potential (AP) is that it propagates in only one direction.

Why does an action potential not propagate backwards?

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Upstream voltage-gated ${ Na }^{ + }$ channels are inactivated and cannot reopen until the membrane repolarizes.


There are not enough ${ Na }^{ + }$ channels available upstream of the AP initiation site on the axon.


Upstream voltage-gated ${ K }^{ + }$ channels remain open briefly after the membrane repolarizes.


The currents do not flow backwards.

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