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The second law of thermodynamics states that a process is spontaneous if it will cause an increase in the entropy of the universe. However, it is more convenient to have a criterion of spontaneity that is based on the properties of the system.

Which of the following conditions of the system will always describe a spontaneous process at constant temperature and volume?


$\Delta G<0$


$\Delta A<0$


$\Delta H<0$


$\Delta U<0$

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