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Fishy Cooperation, Frans B. M. de Waal

De Waal, Frans B. M. "Fishy Cooperation." PLOS Biology (2006): n. pag. Web. 19 Mar. 2016.

In this section (lines 44-46), the author suggests that:

"The best way to approach animal intelligence is from an evolutionary and ecological perspective focused on the tasks that each species faces in nature."

What does this suggest about the best way to study animal intelligence?


It must be studied considering influential perspectives that affect the development of the animal.


It is highly predictable and relative to the animal's spot on the evolutionary ladder.


It is a complicated theory that requires the study of ecology and its influence upon the animal in nature.


It is a theory that requires a focus upon all of the tasks the animal experienced in nature.

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