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Fishy Cooperation, Frans B. M. de Waal

De Waal, Frans B. M. "Fishy Cooperation." PLOS Biology (2006): n. pag. Journals.plos.org. Web. 19 Mar. 2016.

In the second paragraph (lines 4-9):

"Over the past decade, this ladder has been challenged by claims of high intelligence and great social complexity in other animals. For example, spotted hyenas establish hierarchies in which dominant females support the rank contests of their daughters. Bottlenose dolphins form “political” coalitions every bit as complex as those of chimpanzees. Caledonian crows not only use tools in the wild, but also modify tools in the lab, an ability once thought to define humans,"

the hyenas, dolphins and crows all challenge established

A

social hierarchies.

B

political coalitions.

C

intelligence theories.

D

mechanical ability.

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