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WHEREAS such willful obstruction of justice hinders the execution of the laws of that State and of the United States, and makes it impracticable to enforce such laws by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings; and

WHEREAS such obstruction of justice constitutes a denial of the equal protection of the laws secured by the Constitution of the United States and impedes the course of justice under those laws:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, President of the United States, under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and Statutes of the United States, including Chapter 15 of Title 10 of the United States Code, particularly sections 332, 333 and 334 thereof, do command all persons engaged in such obstruction of justice to cease and desist therefrom, and to disperse forthwith;

The excerpt above is from Executive Order 10730, issued by President Eisenhower in September 1957. What was the issue that forced the President to take such an aggressive stand as Chief Executive?


The integration of interstate busing after the Rosa Parks’ incident.


The integration of the University of Mississippi (“Ole Miss”) by allowing James Meredith to begin his studies.


The integration of Little Rock Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas.


The enforcement of The Voting Rights Act which was being ignored by several Southern states.


The refusal to allow African-Americans access to lunch counters in the South.

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