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Why were urban political machines so successful in the late 1800s at winning elections and retaining control over city politics?
A firm nativist stance in opposing immigration.
Keeping the rich and middle class happy by keeping taxes down, especially on property.
Reaching out to all voters, regardless of class, race or ethnicity.
Emphasizing good government ethics, clean elections, and fiscal responsibility.
Divulging jobs, benefits, and rewards to favored groups of voters.