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Why were urban political machines so successful in the late 1800s at winning elections and retaining control over city politics?

A

A firm nativist stance in opposing immigration.

B

Keeping the rich and middle class happy by keeping taxes down, especially on property.

C

Reaching out to all voters, regardless of class, race or ethnicity.

D

Emphasizing good government ethics, clean elections, and fiscal responsibility.

E

Divulging jobs, benefits, and rewards to favored groups of voters.

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