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Photo of chaos in South Boston MA. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2016.

The Soiling of Old Glory, Copyright Stanley Forman.

This photograph was taken in 1971, revealing the violent unrest caused by the court-ordered busing of schoolchildren in Boston Mass.

Why were several lawsuits brought before these courts despite the previous Supreme Court rulings outlawing segregated schools?


Many school districts disagreed with the Brown rulings and refused to provide school bus service to minority students.


The extraordinarily high crime rates in northern cities had made the streets too unsafe for children to walk to school.


The Brown rulings had only applied to public schools that were located in southern "Jim Crow" states.


The state of Massachusetts refused to deal with the issue of school integration and left the issue in the Federal government's hands.


Residential patterns in large urban areas had created neighborhoods that lacked racially-mixed populations, thereby racially segregating schools through de facto segregation.

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