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Here we shall gather the manifestation, the declaration, the account of the sowing and the dawning by the Framer and the Shaper, She Who Has Borne Children and He Who Has Begotten Sons, as they are called… Creator of the Green Earth and Creator of the Blue Sky, as they are called. These collectively are evoked and given expression as the Midwife and the Patriarch, whose names are Xpiyacoc and Xmucane, the Protector and the Shelterer, Twice Midwife and Twice Patriarch, as they are called in Quiché traditions. They gave voice to all things and accomplished their purpose in purity of being and in truth.

All then was measured and staked out into four divisions, doubling over and stretching the measuring cords of the womb of sky and the womb of earth. Thus were established the four corners, the four sides, as it is said, by the Framer and the Shaper, the Mother and the Father of life and all creation, the giver of breath and the giver of heart, they who give birth and give heart to the light everlasting, the child of light born of woman and the son of light born of man, they who are compassionate and wise in all things—all that exists in the sky and on the earth, in the lakes and in the sea.

Based on this excerpt from the Popol Vuh, a sacred Mayan text, what can be inferred about gender relationships in Mayan society?


The Mayans were a patriarchal society.


The Mayans were a matriarchal society.


The Mayans favored the roles of men over women.


The Mayans favored the roles of women over men.


The Mayans were relatively egalitarian.

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