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All of the following were outcomes or impacts of Mustafa Kemal, or Ataturk’s, modernization of Turkey during the Interwar Years EXCEPT:


Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate and transition to a secular state.


Adoption of Western-style medicine to replace superstition and herbal medicines and potions.


Establishment of universal suffrage rights.


The rise of Pan-Arabism across the Middle East.


The replacement of law system based on Shari’a with a new civil law code.

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