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Read the following lines from Book VI when Anu responds to his daughter Ishtar’s request to borrow the Bull of Heaven.

“But if I give you the Bull of Heaven, Uruk will have famine for seven long years. Have you provided the people with grain for seven years, and the cattle with fodder?" Ishtar said, "Yes, of course I have gathered grain and fodder, I have stored up enough — more than enough — for seven years.” (Mitchell 136).

What do these lines, coupled with context from the rest of the epic Gilgamesh, illustrate about the Mesopotamian gods?


Although the gods can be fickle and have poor judgment, they can also be fair and often try to act justly towards humanity.


The gods are fickle and do not care about humans.


The gods are gracious and dare not hurt any humans because humans are like the gods' children: cherished and admired.


The gods are benevolent and bless those who deserve it.


The gods are vengeful and will stop at no lengths to exact revenge.

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