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Read the following passage from Book VII of Gilgamesh:

[Enkidu] said to Gilgamesh, "Dear friend, dear brother, they are taking me from you. I will not return. I will sit with the dead in the underworld, and never will I see my dear brother again." (Mitchell 141-142).

This illustrates that the Mesopotamians


feared the afterlife, which was imagined to be a hellish punishment for those who had not led a heroic life.


saw the afterlife is a reward for heroic deeds, thus strived to be valiant and face death bravely.


feared death as the great and inevitable equalizer.


believed that the afterlife would dispense justice for deeds and misdeeds of this world.


thought death could be overcome through heroism in this life.

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