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Read the following lines from Book V when Humbaba taunts Enkidu.

“And you, Enkidu, you son of a fish or a turtle, you gutless, fatherless spawn who never suckled on mother’s milk, I saw you in the pastures when you were young, I saw you graze with the wandering herds but I didn’t kill you, you were too scrawny, you wouldn’t have made a decent meal. And now you dare to lead Gilgamesh here, you both stand before me looking like a pair of frightened girls” (Mitchell 122-123).

From these lines, modern readers can infer that Mesopotamian heroes were expected to be an antithesis of the monster Humbaba by being


merciful, dutiful, kind, and humble.


fearful, subservient, animalistic, and daring.


brutish, physically strong, inquisitive, and animalistic.


physically strong, brave, loyal, and civilized.


adventurous, dutiful, courageous, and combative.

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