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Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of Jem's argument for the importance of reading and writing, expressed in Chapter 23?


Jem assumes there is a direct causal relationship between how long one's family has been literate and one's amount of family wealth, level of career success, and degree of social acceptance.


Jem privileges certain kinds of knowledge and practices over others, assigning the measure of success according to his culture as the measure of success to be applied to all cultures.


Jem works off of an incomplete understanding of history, generalizing about the importance of literacy based on a small and inadequate amount of information about Ancient Egypt and its culture.


Jem assumes there is a single inherent reason for the all the differences that he has noticed among people, in terms of their wealth, career opportunities, social connections, and level of respectability.


Jem attributes universal worth to the things that he himself values, stopping short of proposing that these white-collar, middle-class values should be made the measure of success for all people.

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