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What I have heard of Brahmins sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach; or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars -- even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness.

Which structural elements of the text above best relay the author’s intended message?


The use of a periodic sentence and spiritual allusion pulls the reader through the passage to discover Thoreau’s astonished view of the extent the townspeople go through to obtain what they believe are necessities.


The use of first person point of view to validate Thoreau’s credibility in witnessing the struggles the Brahmins had endured to obtain their daily necessities.


The juxtaposition of both spiritual being and natural being to paint a picture for the reader. This helps the reader to grasp the similarities of the two beings in contrast to the townspeople


The stream of consciousness writing reminds the reader that Thoreau believes in the importance of weaving spirituality into our daily life.


The detailed diction describing the Brahmin allows the reader to visualize the physicality of the Brahmins in an effort to evoke a pathos appeal that encourages the reader to be more empathic of other cultural values.

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