Study Guide to AP Chemistry

The Ultimate Study Guide to AP Chemistry

Preparing for AP Chemistry can be incredibly stressful. From remembering how to balance reactions to keeping entropy and enthalpy straight, AP Chemistry is one of the densest AP subjects the College Board offers. Albert.io provides hundreds of AP Chemistry practice questions to help you prepare smarter for the AP Chem test. With curriculum-aligned questions, you can rest assured that when you practice on Albert.io, you’re prepping smart for the test.

Sometimes students and teachers want to pinpoint exactly what Essential Understanding or Essential Knowledge concept they need to devote more time towards. As such, we went ahead and tagged every single one of our AP Chemistry questions to the official College Board curriculum.

So if you’re teaching AP Chemistry this year, you can turn to this page if you ever need to know which questions to assign your students on Albert.io. If you’re taking AP Chemistry, you can turn to this page for targeted practice so that you can study more efficiently. Be sure to bookmark this page for quick reference and to share it with friends. Hope you enjoy and best of luck on AP Chemistry this year!

If you prefer a physical copy, you can download a PDF of this here.

Last updated October 8, 2015

Big Idea Number Enduring Understanding Essential Knowledge Related Albert.io Questions

Big Idea 1

Enduring understanding 1.A: All matter is made of atoms. There are a limited number of types of atoms; these are the elements. 1.A.1 1. Average Mass
2. Mass Ratio
3. Contamination
4. Purity
5. Composition Variations
Enduring understanding 1.A: All matter is made of atoms. There are a limited number of types of atoms; these are the elements. 1.A.2 1. Moles and Empirical Formula
2. Mass Percent Data
3. Mass Data
4. Oxocarbon
5. Combustion Data
6. Hydrate Data
7. Same Mass Percent
8. Mass Percent
9. Empirical and Molecular
10. Molecular Formula of Fructose
11. Acceptable Molecular Mass
12. Simplest Formula
13. Percent by Mass
14. Particulate and Mass Percent
15. Particulate Empirical Formula
16. Valence Electrons and Bonding
Enduring understanding 1.A: All matter is made of atoms. There are a limited number of types of atoms; these are the elements. 1.A.3 1. Mass Percent
2. Atoms in an Element
3. Same Number of Atoms
4. Same Number of Moles
5. Grams of Nitrogen
6. Moles of Oxygen
7. Molecular Formula of Fructose
8. Hydrogen Atoms
9. Comparing Compounds
10. Molar Mass
Enduring understanding 1.B: The atoms of each element have

unique structures arising from interactions between electrons and nuclei.

1.B.1 1. Wavelength
2. Cation
3. Photon Energy
4. Comparing Light
5. Successive Ionization Energy
6. Increasing Ionization
7. Rank Elements
8. Second Ionization Energy
9. Successive Ionization Data
10. Rank Ions
11. Explain Data
12. Orbitals
13. Electron Configuration
14. Identify Element
15. Energy analysis
16. Oxide
17. Successive Ionization Energy
18. Rank Ions
19. Electron Configuration
Enduring understanding 1.B: The atoms of each element have

unique structures arising from interactions between electrons and nuclei.

1.B.2 1. Ground State of an Ion
2. Excited State
3. Effective Nuclear Charge
4. Orbital Diagrams
5. Ion Configuration
6. Successive Ionization Energy
7. Similar Properties
8. Most Reactive Element
9. Different Radii
10. Formula of the Compound
11. Explain Data
12 Exception to Trend
Enduring understanding 1.C: Elements display periodicity in their properties when the elements are organized according to increasing atomic number. This periodicity can be explained by the regular variations that occur in the electronic structures of atoms. Periodicity is a useful principle for understanding properties and predicting trends in properties. Its modern-day uses range from examining the composition of materials to generating ideas for designing new materials. 1.C.1 1. Atomic Radii
2. Smallest Radius
3. Electron Shielding
4. First Ionization Energy
5. Highest Electronegativity
6. Ionization Justification
7. Explain Radii Data
8. Radius and Ionization
9. Similar Atomic Radius
10. Second Ionization Energy
11. Ionization Energy Data
12. Ionization Equations
13. Largest Radius
14. Reactivity
15. Ion Versus Atom
16. Irregular Configuration
17. Same Group
18. Salt
19. Newly Discovered Element
20. Reducing Ability
21. Ionic Radii
Enduring understanding 1.C: Elements display periodicity in their properties when the elements are organized according to increasing atomic number. This periodicity can be explained by the regular variations that occur in the electronic structures of atoms. Periodicity is a useful principle for understanding properties and predicting trends in properties. Its modern-day uses range from examining the composition of materials to generating ideas for designing new materials. 1.C.2 1. Diamagnetic
2. Ionic Radii
3. Semiconductor
Enduring Understanding 1.D: Atoms are so small that they are difficult to study directly; atomic models are constructed to explain experimental data on collections of atoms. 1.D.1 1. Discarding Models
2. Quantum Mechanical Model
3. Atomic Theory
Enduring Understanding 1.D: Atoms are so small that they are difficult to study directly; atomic models are constructed to explain experimental data on collections of atoms. 1.D.2 1. Quantum Mechanical Model
2. Sulfur Isotope
3. Most Abundant Isotope
4. Relative Abundance
5. Identify Element
6. Average Atomic Mass
7. Identify Unknown
8. Largest Peak
9. Evidence of Substance
10. Mass Difference
Enduring Understanding 1.D: Atoms are so small that they are difficult to study directly; atomic models are constructed to explain experimental data on collections of atoms. 1.D.3 1. Bohr Model
2. Electron Transition
3. Carrot Juice
4. Analysis of Unknown
5. Factors of Beer’s Law
6. Types of Spectroscopy
7. Colorimeter Procedure
8. Spectroscopy Error
9. Unknown Concentration
10. Absorbance Data
Enduring Understanding 1.E: Atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. 1.E.1  1. Corn

2. Particulate Empirical Formula

Enduring Understanding 1.E: Atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. 1.E.2 1. Balancing
2. Gas Stoichiometry
3. Particilate Stoichiometry
4. Molarity Stoichiometry
5. Concentration of NaOH
6. Volume to Neutralize
7. KHP Titration
8. Titration Error
9. Gravimetric Analysis Procedure
10. Particulate Analysis of Lab
11. Mass Percent
12. Identity of Unknown
13. Gravimetric Analysis Error

Big Idea 2

Enduring Understanding 2.A: Matter can be described by its physical properties. The physical properties of a substance generally depend on the spacing between the particles (atoms, molecules, ions) that make up the substance and the forces of attraction among them. 2.A.1  1. Composition Properties
2. IMF and Boiling Point
3. Viscosity and Bonding
4. Complex Ligand Formation
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Matter can be described by its physical properties. The physical properties of a substance generally depend on the spacing between the particles (atoms, molecules, ions) that make up the substance and the forces of attraction among them. 2.A.2 1. Ideal Gas Deviation
2. Molar Mass of a Gas
3. Ideal Gas Calculation
4. Ideal Gas Behavior
5. J-tube Calculation
6. Gas Law Calculation
7. Partial Pressure Calculation
8. Density Calculation
9. Density of a Noble Gas
10. Partial Pressure and Moles
11. Gas Stoichiometry
12. Equilibrium System
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Matter can be described by its physical properties. The physical properties of a substance generally depend on the spacing between the particles (atoms, molecules, ions) that make up the substance and the forces of attraction among them. 2.A.3 1. Molarity and Dissolving
2. Mass Fraction
3. Molarity Calculation
4. Unknown Concentration Method
5. Dilution of a Solution
6. Physical Separation
7. Distillation and Properties
8. Laboratory Glassware
9. Solubility Calculation
10. Solvation Thermodynamics
11. Thin Layer Chromatography
12. Percent and Density
13. Solute-solvent Interaction
14. Basic Properties
15. Solubility Thermodynamics
16. Solubility Differences
17. Thermodynamic Solubility
18. Ion Formation in Solution
Enduring Understanding 2.B: Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature. 2.B.1 1. Halogen Intermolecular Forces
2. Molecular Interparticle Forces
3. Pi Bonding
Enduring Understanding 2.B: Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature. 2.B.2 1. Hydrogen Bonding Structures
2. Molecular Forces and Polarity
3. Dipole-dipole Interactions
4. Structural Properties
5. Dissolution and Forces
6. Polarity and Solubility
7. Solubility of Amino Acids
8. Polar Solubility
9. Non-polar Solubility
Enduring Understanding 2.B: Forces of attraction between particles (including the noble gases and also different parts of some large molecules) are important in determining many macroscopic properties of a substance, including how the observable physical state changes with temperature. 2.B.3 1. Forces and Physical Properties
2. Properties of Gases
3. Solubility of Gases
4. Physical Properties of Gases
5. Melting Point and Forces
6. Structure and Properties
7. Interparticle Forces and MP
8. Bonding and States of Matter
9. Molecular Forces and States
10. Solubility and Pressure
11. Ionic Solubility
12. Solubility and Melting Point
13. Dissolution and Insolubility
14. Molecules and Properties
15. Mixing of Gases
16. P-T Relationship of a Gas
17. Collecting Gas Over Water
18. IMF and Polarity
Enduring Understanding 2.C: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together in a unit are called chemical bonds. 2.C.1 1. Bond Polarity
2. Polar Solubility
3. Non-polar Solubility
4. Multiple Bonds in a Substance
5. Geometry and Polarity
6. Bonds and Pressure Changes
Enduring Understanding 2.C: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together in a unit are called chemical bonds. 2.C.2 1. Ionic Compound Identification
2. Expanded Octets
3. Ionic Formula Unit
4. Metal Oxide Formula
5. Geometry Similarities
6. Valence Electrons and Bonding
7. Valence Electrons and Alloys
8. Ionic Lattice Energy
9. Lattice Structure and BP
Enduring Understanding 2.C: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together in a unit are called chemical bonds. 2.C.3 1. Metallic Bonding Theories
2. Noble and Base Metals
3. Malleability of Metallic Bonds
4. Valence Electrons and Metals
5. Valence Electrons and Alloys
6. Valence Electrons and Metals
Enduring Understanding 2.C: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together in a unit are called chemical bonds. 2.C.4 1. Multiple Bonds in a Substance
2. Geometry of a Substance
3. Geometry Similarities
4. Hybrid Orbital Configuration
5. Geometry of Ions
6. Geometry and Polarity
7. RHED Value and Shape
8. Formal Charge and Structure
9. Geometry of Organic Compounds
10. Molecular Geometry
11. Bond Energy of a Substance
12. Resonance Structures
13. Lewis Structure View
14. Geometry of Ions
15. Valence Electrons of Non-metals
Enduring Understanding 2.D: The type of bonding in the solid state can be deduced from the properties of the solid state. 2.D.1 1. Ionic Solids and Metals
2. Ionic Solid Dissolution
3. Ionic Solid Properties
4. Ionic Solid Conduction
5. Coulombic Forces and VP
6. Coulombic Forces in Compounds
7. Coulombic Forces and MP
8. Solvation and Temperature
Enduring Understanding 2.D: The type of bonding in the solid state can be deduced from the properties of the solid state. 2.D.2 1. Ionic Solids and Metals
2. Solvation and Temperature
3. Solvation and Free Energy
4. Alloy Substances
5. Alloy Applications
6. Specific Heat of Metals
7. Malleability of Metallic Bonds
8. Metallic Mixture Benefits
9. Large Molecule Application
Enduring Understanding 2.D: The type of bonding in the solid state can be deduced from the properties of the solid state. 2.D.3 1. Allotropes of Carbon
2. Covalent Compound Properties
3. Covalent Network Solids
4. Silicon as a Network Solid
5. 3D Covalent Network Solids
Enduring Understanding 2.D: The type of bonding in the solid state can be deduced from the properties of the solid state. 2.D.4 1. Molecular Solid Compounds
2. Weak IMF in a Solid
3. Solid Melting Points
4. Spontaneity of a Reaction

Big Idea 3

Enduring Understanding 3.A: Chemical changes are represented by a balanced chemical equation that identifies the ratios with which reactants react and products form. 3.A.1 1. Chemical Equation
2. Spectator Ion
3. Most Product
4. Aqueous Solutions
5. Maximum Mass
6. Identify Spectator Ions
7. Ions and Solids
8. Acid-base Reaction
9. Net Ionic Equation
10. Moles of Ions
11. Equation Type
Enduring Understanding 3.A: Chemical changes are represented by a balanced chemical equation that identifies the ratios with which reactants react and products form. 3.A.2 1. Neutralization
2. Gas Stoichiometry
3. Mole Stoichiometry
4. Volume of Hydrogen Gas
5. Laboratory Observations
6. Excess Reactant
7. Ion Concentration
8. Unknown Element
9. Equilibrium System
10. Mass Produced
11. Percent Yield of a Gas
12. Ostwald Process
13. Percentage by Weight
14. Mass of Ore Sample
Enduring Understanding 3.B: Chemical reactions can be classified by considering what the reactants are, what the products are, or how they change from one into the other. Classes of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction reactions. 3.B.1 1. Change in Mass
2. Silver Oxide Procedure
3. Hydrate Lab Procedure
4. Empirical Formula Data
5. Unknown Copper Oxide
6. Unknown Oxide of Titanium
7. Alum Lab Data
8. Hydrate Errors
9. Non-redox
Enduring Understanding 3.B: Chemical reactions can be classified by considering what the reactants are, what the products are, or how they change from one into the other. Classes of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction reactions. 3.B.2 1. Conjugate Base
2. Amphoteric
3. Amphoteric Hydroxides
4. Conjugate Acid
5. Strongest Conjugate Base
6. Strongest Acid
7. Strongest Base
8. Percentage by Weight
Enduring Understanding 3.B: Chemical reactions can be classified by considering what the reactants are, what the products are, or how they change from one into the other. Classes of chemical reactions include synthesis, decomposition, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction reactions. 3.B.3 1. Non-redox
2. Highest Oxidation Number
3. Oxidation Half Reaction
4. Oxidation and Reduction
5. Balancing Redox in Basic
6. Balancing Redox in Acidic
7. Final Concentration
8. Electron Transfer
9. Hydrogen Peroxide
Enduring Understanding 3.C: Chemical and physical transformations may be observed in several ways and typically involve a change in energy. 3.C.1 1. Classify Chemical Equation
2. Classify Copper Reaction
3. Ambiguous Change
4. Particulate Diagram
5. Classify the Diagram
Enduring Understanding 3.C: Chemical and physical transformations may be observed in several ways and typically involve a change in energy. 3.C.2 1. Laboratory Observation
2. Effect of Enthalpy
3. Overall Reaction
4. Energy Calculation
5. Endothermic
Enduring Understanding 3.C: Chemical and physical transformations may be observed in several ways and typically involve a change in energy. 3.C.3 1. Cathode
2. Ecell
3. Oxidation or Reduction
4. Electroplating
5. Salt Bridge
6. Gibbs Free Energy
7. Ease of Oxidation
8. Electrochemical Cell
9. Diagram
10. Adding NaOH
11. Anode
12. Unknown Chloride
13. Increasing Voltage
14. Unknown Metal

Big Idea 4

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Reaction rates that depend on temperature and other environmental factors are determined by measuring changes in concentrations of reactants or products over time. 4.A.1 1. Acid-base Reaction Rate
2. Reaction Rate and Orientation
3. Titration Rate Indicator
4. Change in Reactants
5. Beer’s Law Application
6. Catalyst Definition
7. Chlorofluorocarbons
8. Rates of the Opposing Reaction
Enduring Understanding 4.A: Reaction rates that depend on temperature and other environmental factors are determined by measuring changes in concentrations of reactants or products over time. 4.A.2 1. Half-life Reaction Rate
2. Thermodynamic and Rates
3. Change in Reactants and Rates
4. Change in Reactant Calculation
5. Boltzmann’s Equation
6. Reaction Order Calculation
7. Reaction Order Determination
8. Multi-step Reaction Basics
9. Reaction Order Changes
10. Rate Law Application
11. Rate Law Determination
12. Rate Law Calculation
13. Increase of a Reaction Rate
14. Radioactive Rate Law
15. Rate Law Based on Data
16. Rate Law and Rate Order
17. Catalysts and Rate Laws
18. Rate Law Order Calculation
Enduring Understanding 4.A: Reaction rates that depend on temperature and other environmental factors are determined by measuring changes in concentrations of reactants or products over time. 4.A.3 1. Half-life Reaction Rate
2. Rate Constant and Ea
3. Unit for a Rate Constant
Enduring Understanding 4.B: Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules. Only collisions having sufficient energy and proper relative orientation of reactants lead to products. 4.B.1 1. Reaction Order and Rate Laws
2. Reaction Order and Half-life
3. Collisions and Rate Laws
4. Effect of Collisions on Rates
5. Frequency and Collisions
6. Elementary Reactions
7. Elementary Reaction Graph
8. Elementary Reaction Order
Enduring Understanding 4.B: Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules. Only collisions having sufficient energy and proper relative orientation of reactants lead to products. 4.B.2 1. Temperature Dependence of Ea
2. Activation Energy of Reactions
3. Ea of a Reversible Reaction
4. Activation Energy Definition
5. Collisions and Orientation
6. Collisions and Rate Laws
7. Boltzmann Graph Interpretation
8. Maxwell Boltzmann Graph
9. Maxwell Boltzmann & Collisions
10. Rates of Non-elementary Rxns
11. Rates and Product Formation
12. Rates and Chemical Kinetics
Enduring Understanding 4.B: Elementary reactions are mediated by collisions between molecules. Only collisions having sufficient energy and proper relative orientation of reactants lead to products. 4.B.3 1. Energy Diagram Interpretation
2. Energy Graph Designation
3. Energy Diagram and Reactions
4. Arrhenius Equation
5. Energy Graph and Temperature
6. Energy Profile Analysis
7. Energy Profile Graphs
Enduring understanding 4.C: Many reactions proceed via a series of elementary reactions. 4.C.1 1. Reaction Mechanism Properties
2. Components of a Multi-step Rxn
3. Interpretation of a Reaction
4. Overall Reaction and Mechanism
5. Gas Phase Rate Law
6. Overall Reaction Information
7. Elementary Reaction Steps
8. Rate Law Mechanisms
9. Rate Laws and Catalysts
10. Thermolecular Rate Law
11. Reaction Order and Rate Laws
Enduring understanding 4.C: Many reactions proceed via a series of elementary reactions. 4.C.2 1. Multi-step Reaction Rate Law
2. Rate Determining Step
3. Mechanisms and Rates
4. Rate Law and Mechanism
5. Gas Phase Rate Law
6. Individual Mechanism Steps
7. Overall Reaction Thermodynamic
Enduring understanding 4.C: Many reactions proceed via a series of elementary reactions. 4.C.3 1. Components of a Mechanism
2. Intermediate of a Reaction
3. Intermediate Properties
4. Intermediate Identification
5. Overall Reaction and Mechanism
6.  Gas Phase Rate Law
7. Multi-step and Related Rate
8. Overall Reaction Intermediate
9. Temperature and Mechanisms
Enduring Understanding 4.D: Reaction rates may be increased by the presence of a catalyst. 4.D.1 1. Reaction Rate Reduction
2. Pollution & Reaction Rate
3. Reaction Rate & Catalysts
4. Reaction Rate Thermodynamics
5. Catalyzed vs Uncatalyzed Graph
6. Catalyst
7. Catalyst Application
8. Reaction Energy Profile
9. Basic Rate Law Information
10. Energy Diagram Interpretation
11. Catalyst and Energy Profile
Enduring Understanding 4.D: Reaction rates may be increased by the presence of a catalyst. 4.D.2 1. Acid-base Catalyst
2. Surface Catalyst
3. Biological Catalyst
4. Metal Heterogeneous Catalyst
5. Commercial Surface Catalyst
6. Ionic Compound as a Catalyst
7. Catalyst Identification
8. Lock and Key Enzyme
9. Biological Systems & Enzymes
10. Heterogeneous Catalyst
11. Multi-step Homogeneous Catalyst
12. Acid-base Catalyst Application

Big Idea 5

Enduring Understanding 5.A: Two systems with different temperatures that are in thermal contact will exchange energy. The quantity of thermal energy transferred from one system to another is called heat. 5.A.1 1. Kinetic Energy Changes
2. Temperature Changes Graphic
3. Effect on Temperature
4. Absolute Zero
5. Average Kinetic Energy
6. Heat of a Substance
7. Boltzmann Graph
Enduring Understanding 5.A: Two systems with different temperatures that are in thermal contact will exchange energy. The quantity of thermal energy transferred from one system to another is called heat. 5.A.2 1. Kinetic Energy
2. Particle Velocity
3. Change in Energy
4. Energy Transfer
5. KE of Gases
6. Kinetic Energy Comparison
7. Energy Transfer Values
8. Heat Definition
9. Thermal Equilibrium
10. Thermal Equilibrium Graph
11. Energy Change of a System
12. Specific Heat Comparison
13. Heat Transfer
14. Heat of Formation
15. Potential Energy Source
16. Lattice Energy
17. Bond Order
18. Bond Length
19. Potential Energy
20. Bond Breaking Energy
21. Internal Energy
Enduring Understanding 5.B: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another. 5.B.1 1. Law of Conservation of Energy
2. Energy at a Particulate Level
3. Energy Transfer for a System
4. Pure Thermal Transfer Energy
5.  Work and Heat Energy View
6. Energy Applied to a Battery
7. Work & Internal Energy Change
8. Work and Change in Energy
Enduring Understanding 5.B: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another. 5.B.2 1. Energy Transfer for a System
2. Energy Released from a System
3. Systems & Transfer of Energy
Enduring Understanding 5.B: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another. 5.B.3 1. Enthalpy Change of a Reaction
2. Energy Change for a System
3. Heat of Formation
4. Chemical Systems & Energy
5.  Energy Transfer and Phases
6. System Energy Description
7. Thermal Processes and Energy
8. Temperature Change
9. Condensation of Water
10. Heat Diagram of Water
11. Enthalpy Changes for a System
Enduring Understanding 5.B: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another. 5.B.4 1.  Enthalpy and Electrolysis
2. Calorimetry Measurements
3. Calorimetry Calculation
4. Calorimetry & Heat Capacity
5. Calorimetry and Molar Enthalpy
6. Calorimetry Application
7. Final Temperature Calculation
8. Lab Errors
9. Density and Calorimetry
10. Specific Heat Definition
11. Heat Capacity Ordering
Enduring Understanding 5.C: Breaking bonds requires energy, and making bonds releases energy. 5.C.1 1. Applied Bond Breaking Energy
2. Geometric Energy Forces
3. Geometric Energy of Foods
4. Geometric Bond Dissociation
5. Geometric Energy of Fuels
6. Geometric Bond Enthalpy
7. Geometric Energy & BP
8. Potential Energy Determination
Enduring Understanding 5.C: Breaking bonds requires energy, and making bonds releases energy. 5.C.2 1. Net Energy Change Calculation
2. New Energy Change Diagram
3. Net Energy Change Description
4. Metabolism and Net Energy
5. Net Energy Change ID
6. Net Energy Change of a Rxn
7. Net Energy Change Graph
8. Efficient Net Energy Change
9. Enthalpy of Atomization
10. Overall Enthalpy of Formation
11. Commercial Use of Enthalpy
12. Standard Enthalpy of Formation
13. Metals & Enthalpy of Reaction
14. Ionic Enthalpy of Formation
15. Non-zero Standard Enthalpy
16. Potential Energy Determination
Enduring Understanding 5.D: Electrostatic forces exist between molecules as well as between atoms or ions, and breaking the resultant intermolecular interactions requires energy. 5.D.1 1. Intermolecular Force Strength
2. Weak Intermolecular Force
3. IMF and Calorimetry
Enduring Understanding 5.D: Electrostatic forces exist between molecules as well as between atoms or ions, and breaking the resultant intermolecular interactions requires energy. 5.D.2 1. Physical State of a Molecule
2. Energy Transfer
3. Strong Intermolecular Energy
4. Inter vs Intra Changes
5. IMF and Properties
6. Forces and Dissolution
7. Inter vs Intra Polarizability
8. Inter vs Intra Identification
Enduring Understanding 5.D: Electrostatic forces exist between molecules as well as between atoms or ions, and breaking the resultant intermolecular interactions requires energy. 5.D.3 1. Intermolecular Energy
2. Large Biological Molecules
3. Biological Molecule Properties
4. Dissolving Biological Molecule
5. Biological Molecule pH
6. Biological Hydrogen Bonding
7. Ligand Properties
Enduring Understanding 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy, or both. 5.E.1 1. 2nd Law and Entropy
2. Entropy Changes in a System
3. Entropy and Phase Diagrams
4. Entropy of Gases
5. Entropy
6. Entropy Change Calculation
7. Endothermic Dissolution
8. Change in Entropy Calculation
Enduring Understanding 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy, or both. 5.E.2 1. Spontaneous Definition
2. Enthalpy for Forming a Base
3. Thermodynamic Favorability
4. Endothermic & Low Entropy
5. Cellular Respiration
6. Change in Enthalpy Calculation
7. Free Energy Change Calculation
8. Overall Energy Calculation
Enduring Understanding 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy, or both. 5.E.3 1. Gibbs and Work Energy
2. Gibbs and Thermodynamics
3. Gibbs and Temperature
4. Gibbs and Spontaneity
5. Slow Reaction in Biological
6. Change in Enthalpy Calculation
7. Free Energy Value Change
8. Free Energy Change Calculation
9. Gibbs & Equilibrium Constant
Enduring Understanding 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy, or both. 5.E.4 1. Endothermic Dissolution
2. Coupled Reactions
3. Coupled Reaction Intermediate
4. Coupled Reaction & Favorable
5. Le Chatelier’s Applied
6. Coupled Rxn Interpretation
Enduring Understanding 5.E: Chemical or physical processes are driven by a decrease in enthalpy or an increase in entropy, or both. 5.E.5 1. Thermodynamic Properties
2. Exothermic and High Entropy
3. Kinetic vs Thermodynamics
4. Thermodynamically Unfavored
5. Interpreting Thermodynamics

Big Idea 6

Enduring Understanding 6.A: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic, reversible state in which rates of opposing processes are equal. 6.A.1 1. Not a Reversible Reaction
2. Reversible Reaction
3. Rusting of Iron
4. Hemoglobin
Enduring Understanding 6.A: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic, reversible state in which rates of opposing processes are equal. 6.A.2 1. Reactant Quotient Expression
2. Kp
3. Kp and Kc
4. Equilibrium Trials
5. Kc from Reactions
6. Graph of Q and K
7. Changes in Ratio
8. Moles at Equilibrium
Enduring Understanding 6.A: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic, reversible state in which rates of opposing processes are equal. 6.A.3 1. System at Equilibrium
2. Equilibrium Has Been Reached
3. Data at Equilibrium
4. Equilibrium Concentrations
5. Equilibrium Constant
6. Moles and Equilibrium
7. Gaseous Equilibrium
8. Concentration at Equilibrium
9. Graph Analysis
10. Match Lines
11. Describing K
12. Adding a Catalyst
13. Concentration-time Graph
14. Match K to Moles
15. Kc
16. Possible K
Enduring Understanding 6.A: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic, reversible state in which rates of opposing processes are equal. 6.A.4 1. STP
2. Instant of Mixing
3. Different Concentrations
4. K from Diagram
5. Concentrations from K
6. K and Hemoglobin
Enduring Understanding 6.B: Systems at equilibrium are responsive to external perturbations, with the response leading to a change in the composition of the system. 6.B.1 1. Increasing Water Vapor
2. Temperature Stress
3. Increase Concentration
4. Adding Reactant
5. Graphs and Stress
6. Temperature and K
7. Decrease in Mass
8. Adding Gas
9. Catalyst
10. Maximum Conversion
11. Temperature Change
12. Density and Allotropes
13. Lunar Lander
14. Ostwald Process
Enduring Understanding 6.B: Systems at equilibrium are responsive to external perturbations, with the response leading to a change in the composition of the system. 6.B.2 1. Endothermic
2. Increased pH
3. Equalities
4. Qp
5. Initial Moles
Enduring Understanding 6.C: Chemical equilibrium plays an important role in acid-base chemistry and in solubility. 6.C.1 1. Unknown Acid
2. Predicting Ka
3. Predicting pOH
4. Predominate Ions
5. Predicting Ions Present
6. Weak Acids
7. Concentration of Hydronium
8. Strength of Conjugate Base
9. Antacids
10. pOH of Solutions
11. Ka and Ionization
12. Equivalence Point
13. pKa from Titration Graph
14. Comparing Graphs
15. Choosing an Indicator
16. Comparing Concentrations
17. Titration Technique
18. Hydroxide Ion Concentration
19. Acidity Rank
20. Temperature and Kw
21. pKa and Concentration
22. pH to Hydronium
23. Stomach Ulcers
24. Hydroxide to pH
25. Pyridine
26. Dilution and pH
27. pH and Molarity
28. pH of Salt Solutions
29. Hydronium and Molarity
30. Saturated Base
31. Dissociation and Ka
32. Changing Ionization
33. Estimating pH of a Solution
34. Dilution and Hydronium
35. Half-equivalence Point
36. Mixture pH
37. Comparing Titrations
38. Comparing Two Acidic Solutions
39. Titration of a Mixture
40. pH at the Equivalence Point
41. Titration of a Metal Hydroxide
42. Buffering Action
43. Making a Buffer
44. Concentrations in a Buffer
Enduring Understanding 6.C: Chemical equilibrium plays an important role in acid-base chemistry and in solubility. 6.C.2 1. Finding the pH of a Buffer
2. pH of a Mixture
3. Blood
4. Malonic Acid
5. Labile Protons and Graphs
6. Conjugate Base in Solution
7. Thymolphthalein
8. Making Buffers
9. Strong Acids and Buffers
10. Effective Buffers
11. Identifying Buffers
12. pKa and pH
13. Ksp Ranking
14. Ksp and Relative Solubility
15. Molar Solubility
Enduring Understanding 6.C: Chemical equilibrium plays an important role in acid-base chemistry and in solubility. 6.C.3 1. Molar Solubility with a Salt
2. Ion Concentration
3. Factors Changing Ksp
4. Mixing Salts
5. Sea Water
6. Ksp from Data
7. Ksp and Ecell
8. Least Soluble
9. Factors Affecting Solubility
10. Solubility in Acidic Solutions
11. Water Softeners
12. Ions and Solubility
13. Precipitation and Solubility
14. Increasing Solubility
15. Salts and Solubility
16. Salting Out
17. Identify Unknown Metal
18. Entropy Versus Enthalpy
19. Enthalpy of a Solution
20. Comparing Dissolution Steps
Enduring Understanding 6.D: The equilibrium constant is related to temperature and the difference in Gibbs free energy between reactants and products. 6.D.1 1. Value of Zero
2. Free Energy and Q
3. Standard State Conditions
4. K and Free Energy
5. Thermodynamic Data and K
6. Endergonic and Exergonic

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Doug Arbuckle - September 1, 2015

I am registered, and recently received email showing MC questions aligned to new Big Ideas. Upon reviewing, I have some questions: do students need to register to use it, and is it free or is there a cost to them? Is there a school subscription whereby students can be added under the school? What are these costs? I may be interested in having students use it but not initially need all of the reporting. Thank you.

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    Albert.io - September 2, 2015

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